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 The information in the medical news section is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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MRI scan detects breast cancer early and even predicts the risk. Background parenchymal enhancements on MRI (background breast tissue that appear white) foretell higher risk of breast cancer in near future. H Rahbar May 12, 2015, Radiology, online

Long standing vulvar pain without identifiable cause (vulvodynia) has been estimated to affect as many as 28% of reproductive-aged women. Harlow BL et al., Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Sep 27


Symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, such as lack of lubrication, irritated tissues, painful urination, and pain with intercourse, affect as many as 45% of women after menopause. The North American Menopause Society; Menopause Sep 2013


Oral contraceptive pills reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.  Havrilesky L J et al. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Jul.


Older women are more prone to sexually transmitted infections. Post-menopausal changes such as thinning of the vaginal mucosa, narrowing and shortening of the vagina, and decreased lubrication leave women more vulnerable to minor genital injuries that facilitate the entry of pathogens. Also, higher vaginal pH in postmenopausal women increases the risk of contracting gonorrhea and chlamydia. Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect 2008;20:323. 


Females may be more susceptible to infection during ovulation. This natural "dip" in immunity may be to allow sperm to survive the threat of an immune response so it may fertilize an egg successfully. Journal of Leukocyte Biology January 2012; 91 (1): 159
Re-infection with chlamydia increases the risk for pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy in women 
Hillis SD, et al Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:103


Women 30 years or older with normal results on Pap testing and negative results on cervical HPV testing may be rescreened for cervical cancer at 5 years instead.

HPV (Human Papilloma virus) DNA testing is better than cytology alone in preventing cervical cancer or detecting it early on for women over thirty.  The Lancet Oncology, Online 15 December 2011

Women in in whom cervical cancer detected during screening had better prognoses than women with symptomatically detected disease. Cure rate was 92 % when cancer detected on screening and 66 % when disease detected after symptoms. British Medical Journal 2012 Mar 1; 344:e900


Infections responsible for tubal factor infertility: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium. Chlamydia trachomatis is the commonest culprit.   Fertility and Sterility September 2011; 96 (3): 715

Almost all abnormal Pap smear results are caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). National Cervical screening program, Australia
The Pap test Vs. HPV test: Pap test checks women’s cervix for abnormal cells that could turn into cervical cancer. The HPV Test Checks cervix for the human papillomavirus (HPV) that can cause abnormal cells and cervical cancer 
Women aged 21 to 65 years should undergo Pap smears every three years. Women who are between 30 and 65 can lengthen the screening interval to 5 years, if they receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) test along with Pap smears. United States Preventive Services Task Force revised guideline. Annals of Internal Medicine Online; March 14, 2012
Cervical cancer grows slowly. It takes 10 to 15 years for abnormal cells to turn into cancer. Cervical cancer often does not cause symptoms until it is advanced. Women with advanced cervical cancer may have abnormal bleeding, discharge, or pain.
Cervical cancer screening: when to begin and when to discontinue? Screening to be initiated at the age of 21, as invasive disease is more common among younger women. Screening is to be stopped at 65 for women no history of cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia, and whose recent screening tests have been negative. Annals of Internal Medicine, November 15, 2011 (Advance online)
Use of intrauterine contraceptive device reduces the risk of cervical cancer in women. The Lancet Oncology, online, 13 September 2011
Women who receive intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) immediately following abortion experience few complications and are less likely to have an unintended pregnancy than those who delay getting an IUD by several weeks. New England Journal of Medicine 9 Jun 2011
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines recommend that women have their first mammogram at age 40, and yearly beginning at 50. Obstetrics & Gynecology April 2011 
Women above the age of 50 years should be screened for breast cancer once every two years up to age of 74. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guideline


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